Beyond perspectives toward the particular policy sectors and issues, it is necessary to unpack how a policy decision is made, how a policy is designed, and how a policy is incorporated into the governance system. Under this umbrella, the highlight is to stimulate learning on policy deliberation, policy design and governance in the face of complexity and uncertainty.

The nexus of these policy perspectives is based on the fact that to give a priority to deliberative processes in making a policy decision is the way to move forward to the policy design approach as the meaningful deliberation creates the new policy role called “policy designers” who can be anyone that engages in the inclusive process of policy design. Also, deliberative processes can fertilize the new policy ecosystem that the government is not the only force in the policy landscape. This new policy ecosystem then has its potential to activate more interactive and collaborative modes of flexible and organic governance that facilitate the emergence of productive drivers, such as policy entrepreneurs, that can introduce policy innovations, make policy transformation possible, and articulate the expert-citizen-policy interfaces.